Une semaine de passion - Un été pas comme les autres (Harlequin Azur) (French Edition)

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Tout va bien. Ce sont des amis gitans.


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Comment sommes-nous devenus amis? Ce sont les Gitans. Serrage de louches. Il est des lieux qui ne ferment jamais. Il y aura beaucoup, ou peu de monde. Quelque part dans la galaxie, nous aussi nous sommes en vie. Le libre arbitre est entre les deux provocators. Il faut, percuter, percuter, percuter le casque des apparences, encore. La peur paye bien. Shoot garanti.

Mode de vie humain ou mourir en marchant. Qui restera sensible? Petit, tu seras un homme. La mort attend dans son tombeau que tu ouvres enfin les yeux sur le silence de ton langage. Trop bas pour les distinguer objectivement. Le ciel bien trop calme, le vent trop chaud, trop doux, trop innocent. Presque un sourire dans le reflet. Celui qui bavarde avec le Diable et fuit devant Dieu. Ce loup de la Conca de Oro. Elle arrange ses ciseaux comme un couteau et les place entre ses dents.

Elle atteint des confins eschatologiques. Un adolescent regarde ravi. Et elle se marre. Les sourires en jettent comme il faut. Mais fait non, pas tout de suite : elle ne bat pas en retrait, elle change de direction, de discussion. Insupportable cette lenteur de profane! Que le jour inonde. Reflets pastel-en-ciel. Aveuglante mais pas douloureuse. Faut voir le sourire de Pinto Sabre. Bien large. Un temps : le cosmos est suspendu dans les chiottes. Pas un bruit, Tina est dans son lit. Tension soudaine : ses pieds surgissent de sous le drap. On sent bien la lave, progressivement, faire son chemin vers la surface, progresser.

Les poissons parlent, prient. Le territoire est noir. On ne la voit pas. On escalade la pente vers un incendie. Elle pleure dans des bras, juste des. Peux tu encore exister? On est dimanche. Je voudrai — Claustrophobe dans mon propre corps. Sa blondeur efface ma noirceur. Je souffre, je glisse. Je respire. Si tu jouis ou si tu pleures? Si tu te censures ou si tu es franc? Et pas de contre-visite chez Norauto? Doucement je rigole. Un obstacle a son bonheur…la phrase interpelle…….

Vous… Vous voulez bien dire Sue-Heavy-Hawaii? Autrement dit Suzanne Sprezature? Il terrifierait un ours. La vie est fantastique. Un roman pour les filles. Oh je vous quitte mon chat arrive. Rires de joie! I- Sur le ton du sussurrement , du bouche a oreilles, de tout ce qui se peut dire et entendre, en nos temps, comme en ceux qui ne sont plus ou qui sont a venir. Sommes nous perdus au fond de la mine? Le vent se met a souffler…. Vous ne me quitterais jamais? Un grand vacarme retentit qui noie le dialogue. Tous les jours le recit retrecit un peu plus. Il faisait beau, je sortis de chez moi.

Et nous discutions avec nous dans une totale confusion. Le lendemain, il redevient normal. Joao Guimaraes Rosa. Qui rend un peu de justice. Des terroristes, mais gentils. Bah, je te dis : faut croire pour le voir! Ah quel talent! Encore un joli score pour Ava. Elle, la neigeuse, de venir? De perle0 des sang bien grasses imbibent ponctuellement la neige.

Tout Ava coule une nouvelle fois. Maria reste silencieuse. Une balle qui a mis son temps pour finir son travail. Il y a toujours acheteur. Alors permettez-moi de vous parler de ma petite vie ici, pour une fois. Mais bref, nous sommes des chiens avec des vies de chiens et des morts de corniauds. Brillant contre tous les mates. Il ne veut rien savoir, ne se fatigue pas et apprend comme un singe devant un miroir. Il gagne facilement : bien heureusement.

Ah, non mais franchement quel talent! Cruel tennis. Passe environ dix secondes. De perle des sang bien grasses imbibent ponctuellement la neige. Le jaguar travaille le ventre de Mona comme un enfant un cadeau. Elle coule une nouvelle fois. Il y a avait des histoires, des discours, des blagues. Quoi dire? Le sexe? Abraham, a propos de la tauromachie et que vous le rattachiez a des histoires alimentaires….

Probablement un autre bug. Mais le temps passe et rien ne se produit. Leurs bouches sont ouvertes et leurs dents sentent le dentifrice. Demain est un autre jour pareil. Un iris qui aborde de nouvelles landes. Mes copines aussi. En bas des volcans, pas loin.

Et on creuse. Mais vraiment. Une vraie passion. Vraiment partout. Ils doivent avoir des os non? Y a pas besoin de creuser. Parfois je les obtiens comme sous-produits. Les charognards les laissent aussi… — Je vois. Ses courbes. Un vraiment bon. Elle tire sur le col de son t-shirt. Je le sens. Hein, les cornes? Mais il y a autre chose : la baston des ultra a pris des allures de partouze. Tout tombe en lambeaux. On se ramasse sportif, fraternel, tape-dans-le-dos.

Avait-il appris le mandarin? Du bois, tout vient du bois, du coup de hache sous les arbres. Ah, les amis musiciens, la mienne disait pareil. Espoir, je me dis, sans savoir. Je la prends pour une colombe noire et je vois ma veuve. Je prends une taffe. Bon, une veuve que je connais pas encore, alors. Une veuve de vieillesse, pour le dire pulsionnellement. La vie maritale. Oui, des perroquets, lui dis-je. La catharsis commence par nous blesser, pour nous purifier. Sur le plan, sur nulle part, sur le refus des parcours des falaises. Pandora C.

Des bandits, des voyous? On ne voit pas… Ecologie? Un truc microscopiquement apocalyptique, bien sournois. On se concerte, on prend des mesures urgentes, on essaye. Place aux plages! La mer comme partout limpide, turquoise, paradisiaque! On va pouvoir se faire plaisir! A qui voulez-vous que je le dise?

On y avance seul, les siens se trouvent hors de vue, dans les profondeurs. Toute cette souffrance. Ou quelque chose du genre. Selon Lawrence, D. Rien de bien surprenant par ici. Je prends du sable. Il tombe dans ton t-shirt. De partouze sur la fin. Je les lis du dehors. On me demande de laisser tous mes sacs et je ne trouve que des titres anodins. Je raconte mon projet de voyage, je parle des ampoules, on voit une femme dans ma vie. Ma dette karmique en est finie. Elle est animale et vivante; elle pue le poisson. Je travaille sur du kraft.

Je me couche sur le tapis. As-tu suivi nos traces? Les deux disparaissent. Elle se faisait suspecter. Elles sentent bon. Tout semble en ordre. Je voulais lui dire de revenir. Le silence ne me laisse rien supposer. Un malaise me prend. On se serre les mains. Il me demande mon nom et insiste sur ce que je lui donne mes deux noms. Tu as mes paroles pour te soutenir. Bien de merde, pas mal de pourriture tombe du plafond. Il marche pieds nus.

Genre Manga : Romance

Le livre arrive. Vous voyez le statue avec les six femmes? Il y a un Art qui est reconnaissable, peu importe le contexte. Jean de la Croix. Il ressort les mains, semblablement pour que je puisse les dessiner. Vulcain est bureaucrate!! Oui, barquette. Ca ne sent pas grand chose. Enfin je veux dire comme toi et moi. La viande hein? Les charognards le laisse aussi… — Je vois. Tu peux le caresser.

Il est sensuel. On effleure le sujet chez ceux qui jouisse de la mort, mais ils sont macabres, tristement sentencieux. Un bon.

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Rame dans la rame – Langue sauce piquante

De partouze molle, sur la fin. Leur paroles vous font mal, mais enfin vous savez. Et il faut continuer a vivre. La conspuuation, les diffamations trop aciennes pour y remedier. Le me me poids a porter. La vie ne sera plus jamais la meme. Vous leur dites merci et vous retournez a votre douleur. La beaute a disparu. Mais on peut changer les choses. Putain ce que ca fait mal. Maintenant il faut commencer la longue therapie. Sa science est aveuglee par la pauvrete.

Ses ressources sontg en voie de disparaitre dans les mains des dictateurs de la finance. Je connais bien les plans de cette guerre mondiale ou de ce colonialisme. Aux armes! Un conseil? Je dois me delivrer de ca.. Je ne parvenais pas a chercher les reponses a mes quesstions, et ne voulait pas lancer une guerre pour les risques qui pesaient sur mes amis et amours. QUi etaient ces maffieux que je supposais maintenant en lien avec le gouvernement, et dans des grosses affaires, ce qui expliquait leuur rage, leur acharfnement et la premeditation que ca revekaiit.

Je ne savais pas ce qui allat se passe3r. Et les prejudices se revelaient au fuur et a mesure. Ensuite, il se passait des mouvements bizarre dans mes comptes internet. Je devenais fou. Je me drooguais de plus en plus, avec des produits de pire ene pire. Sarkozy pour criminel, entre autre je le considere trun e fois de traaitre a la patrie. Surement en revelant mes sentiments Chavistes. Et il a reagi bizarrement. Des mouvements mondiauux me confirment mes speculations et mes analyses.

Ce type est dans la cours de Sarkozy. Sarkosy est dangereuux et criminel. Je repete je recouvrais des souvenirs en meme temps que ma passion comprendre pourquoi. Innocent ou non. Les charges qui pesent sur N. Mais les mysteres me poursuivent et les crimes se poursuivent. Les mensonges regnent et ce qui se passe au Venezuela, ou plutot dans les media etrangers me degouttent. Je ene crois pas a la loi du plus forts. Surement par la raison. The first speaker would then retire in his turn while the second 1 N. Since at no time were there two speakers on the stage at the same time, the piece could not be called tech- nically a "dialogue".

Finally, all forms of speech were prohibited and panto- mime alone held the fort. This was not pantomime in the strict sense, how- ever.

Aïe Aïe Aïe !

It was never an end in itself but rather a pis-aller. The need of explanation to make the pantomime clear led to the develop- ment of a genre which became known as pieces a ecritaux. The earliest form of this device was originated by two forain authors Chaillot and Remy. Upon beginning the presentation of one of their pieces a la muette one day, the spectators were surprised to see all the actors come on stage with their right-hand pockets bulging with huge rolls of paper. The reason was not long in clarifying itself.

One of the characters stepped forward, bowed, gallant- ly placed his hand over his heart, moved his lips and said nothing. Ne m'entendez-vous pas? The play then commenced and whenever it became necessary or desirable to give any verbal explanation the actors would resort to their scrolls, upon which the verses were written in enormous letters that could be easily distinguished by the audience. The ceremony consisted in drawing from the right-hand pocket the scroll to be read and returning it to the left-hand pocket after reading.

Experience improved upon the system. Three contemporaries of the initiators, Fuselier, Lesage and Doroeval, evolved a means of giving voice to the scripts. When the scrolls were displayed, the "orchestra" of two or three musicians swung into a familiar popular tune and guided by leaders "planted" in the audience for this purpose, the audience itself was soon sing- ing the words. Against this device the Comedie Francaise could do nothing, for there was no dialogue.

The hands of the Opera were likewise tied, since it was not the actors but the audience who did the singing. The writing was applied on a piece of cloth rolled on a stick. These were fastened to the flies and were lowered at need, usually be- ing unrolled by two children representing little Cupids, who were likewise sus- ded to the flies and balanced by counterweights.

As each scroll was unrol- ed, the orchestra took up the music, the audience joined in the singing of the couplets and the actors performed in pantomime. This was a parody, very freely drawn, of the opera Iphigenie en Tauride. In Lesage T s version the scene takes place not in Tauride, but in Serendib, sup- posedly a mysterious island of Arabia. The play opens as Arlequin, sole sur- 1 N. He is somewhat consoled in his misfortune by having es- caped not only with his life but also with a well-filled purse belonging to a procurator who is by this time at the bottom of the sea.

YVhile he is count- ing his money, a suspicious-looking individual with a patch over one eye and a formidable blunderbuss over his shoulder appears, bows politely, throws his turban on the ground, pantomimes to Arlequin to throw some money into it, takes aim with his gun and cries out ferociously, "Gnaf f , Gnaff J" Jargon, not being classifiable as dialogue, was permissible.

Terrified, Arlequin tosses a few coins into the turban and the individual, after another courte- ous bow, withdraws. Immediately afterward, a second creature appears, this one with one arm in a sling, a wooden leg, and a large cutlass slung at his side. His procedure is the same as that of the first, except that his ex- clamation is "Gniff, Gniff I" Arlequin parts with more money and the second thief withdraws. Arlequin is congratulating himself upon having got off so easily when a third brigand appears before him, a cripple seated in a wooden bowl cul de jatte , with a pistol at his belt.

Take care, sir, that Justice, in its turn, does not take it from you. The three dance about Arlequin and discuss what his fate is to be, while their victim falls to his knees and implores mercy. One of the captors suggests that they kill Arlequin, and brandishes his cutlass in prepa- ration but another proposes that they imprison him in a cask which chances to be handy, explaining that the wolves will soon find him and eat him. Accord- ingly, Arlequin is put into the cask and abandoned to his fate. As Arlequin is lamenting and rolling about in the cask, a famished wolf appears, smells fresh meat, and sniffs at the cask.

Sticking his hand out of his prison, Arlequin succeeds in catching the wolf by the tail. As the enraged beast pulls himself free and runs off, leaving his tail in Arlequin' s hands, the cask breaks apart and Arlequin escapes on the opposite side of the stage. It appears that it is the custom in Serendib that every stranger who arrives by hazard on the island must serve for one month as king. According- ly, Arlequin is accorded a triumphal entry to the palace, which scene gives opportunity for a splashing display of pageantry, enlivened by the accompani- ment of a dialogue in jargon, the whole an obvious steal from Moli era's Bourgeois gantilb The law of the island decrees that at the expiration of the month's reign the pseudo-king must be sacrificed by the high priestess to the god Kesaya.

It develops that the high priestess is none other than Mezzetin and his confidante is Pierrot. These two have disguised themselves as women in order to escape a kingship of which they knew the disagreeable consequences. As the sacrifice is about to begin, Uerazetin asks Arlequin from what country he comes and when the latter replies, C'est a Bergame, helasl en Italie, Qu'une tripiere en ses flancs m'a porta, the knife falls from the hands of the executioner Mezzetin, who, with Pierrot, falls into the arms of their long-lost compatriot.

The trio then decides to sack the temple but as they attempt to carry off Kesaya, the god vanishes, 52 leaving in its place a suckling pig. The temple itself then falls to pieces as Mezzetin, Pierrot and Arlequin make a successful escape and the piece ends. In the forain theaters progressed a step beyond the pieces a eoritaux.

The Opera, badly in debt following the death of its director, Guy- enet, conceived the idea of constituting a new revenue for itself by selling privileges to the forain theaters permitting them to use songs and music in their representations. The result of this development was the birth of comic opera. Two years later, in , a newly organised Italian troupe played be- fore the Regent and was subsequently again permitted to play regularly in Paris, resuming its former fascination for the populace.

The battle between the forain theaters and the regular theaters of Paris was far from over, however. It reached a conclusion only in with the proclamation of liberty for the theaters during the Revolution. When- ever the popularity of the forain presentations reached a high point and that of the Comedie-Francaise or the Opera sank to a correspondingly low ebb, hos- tilities flared up anew and restrictions were again imposed. The forain the- aters, therefore, continued to fluctuate between spoken farces, comic operas and - when they could do nothing else - pantomimes.

Just as the pantomime of the commedia dell' arte was an outgrowth of the farce pantomimes of the ancient Roman mi mi, so the pantomime of the ballet was a development of the serious mimo-dramas of the pantomimi in the days of Augustus. Introduced by Catherine de Medici s from her native Italy shortly after the advent of her comedian compatriots, the Italian ballet was also adopted by the French and achieved a tremendous popularity.

Aside from a desire to satisfy her own craving for sumptuous enter- tainment, it was also to Catherine's interest to distract the attention of her son, Henri III, from affairs of state and consequently she spent large sums of money on devising performances of this nature. The most famous of them was the Ballet comique de la Reine. The libretto was adapted from Agrippa d'Aubigne's Circe by Baltasarini, otherwise known as Beaujoyeulx, a Neapolitan violinist and favorite of the Queen, aided by La Chesnaye, the royal almoner. This production marks an epoch, not in the his- tory of pantomime proper, but in that of ballet and opera, for in it we find for the first time in modem history the unification of the three essential elements of ballets music, dance and coordinated dramatic action.

From this time on until , when Lulli became director of the Opera, ballets were in increasingly great favor as court entertainment. The ballet de cour was a poetic fantasy, combining song, dance and music. It drew its themes from mythological historical and allegorical subjects. Frequently it descend- ed to outright licentiousness. On occasion it resorted to buffoonery, though this was the exception rather than the rule. Its protagonists, who wore con- ventional masks, represented legendary kings and princesses, mythological gods and goddesses, shepherds and shepherdesses such as are portrayed in Watteau's paintings.

Since at this period the ballet was developed as an entertainment for and by the nobility, it reflected strongly the court influence in its cos tumes. These were elaborate, heavy and hampering to any real bodily expres- sion. In effect, pantomime occupied a very negligible place in the ballet during this early period. The ballet de oour reached the peak of its popularity during the reign of Louie XIV but became highly formalised, artificial and as un-spontaneous as its rival in the field of farce was spontaneous and free. When Louis XIV finally grew too fat to dance any longer himself, the popularity of ballet waned at court and was then taken up by schools and colleges, which resorted to it on special occasions, most notably on days of distribution of prizes.

Three years later, in , Lulli became its director and for fifteen years Lulli was French opera. During his incumbency the ballet element in opera was strong. Lulli was also responsible for the daring innovation of introducing women into ballet performances. Hitherto, women's roles had been impersonated by male dancers. The entertainments sponsored by this popular lady in her chateau at Sceaux were justly famous and this social leader was constantly in search of something new to add to their glory.

She conceived the idea of presenting a dumb-show as a novel in- novation, or rather as a resurrection of an art which had been esteemed by the ancients. The vehicle selected by her was the fourth act of Comeille's les Horaces, the scene in which the young Horace kills his sister, Camilla. The episode was set to music for the orchestra as if to be sung but was pre- sented as a dramatic dance without vocal accompaniment.

Unable to procure veritable pan tomi mists to enact it, two women dancers from the opera were J Specially trained. The duchesse du Maine labelled the performance a panto- mime-ballet. From this time on, but particularly during the latter part of the 18th century under the dancer Noverre, the ballet became a dance in which a story was interpreted by action, constituting a veritable mimo-drama, com- plete in itself, independent of song or dialogue. Toward the middle of the century opera attempted to gain a monopoly over pantomime, in consequence of the popularity of this genre among the Ital- ian companies and the forain theaters.

Time and again, it seems, pantomime was being "re-discovered". Jean-Georges Noverre was a dancer, bom in Paris in 17 After studying at length the history of pantomime, No- verre travelled extensively throughout Europe endeavoring to discover some i c 57 stray remnants of the ancient pantomime of classic Rome, particularly the art of Fylades and Bathyllus. His search proved fruitless and he concluded that the art of pantomime was dead. It then became his ambition to restore it to the stage as an independent species.

In this respect, his project failed but he did succeed in regenerating the ballet, giving to pantomime a place and a character unknown to the French ballet before his time. Noverre' 8 first original work was composed for the Opera-Comique in , when the dancer was but twenty years old.

He was a prolific creator, responsible for a long list of elaborate ballets, which were often elaborated pantomimes of classical subjects treated in heroic or lyric manner. In his libretti he made wide use of emotional situations and constructed plots of great dramatic movement, Voltaire was a particular friend of Noverre, as were also Frederick the Great and the English actor, David Garrick. The latter termed Noverre "the Shakespeare of the dance". In Noverre discussed with Voltaire his ambition to adapt a part of the Henriade into a ballet pantomime.

His in- tention, in accordance with that of the ancient Roman pantomimists, was to choose a well-known piece which would be recognized and easily understood by the audience, Voltaire approved the project and encouraged Noverre to carry it through, at the same time expressing regret that the infirmities of his ad- vanced age prevented him from aiding actively in the adaptation and witnessin its representation.

Deprived of the collaboration of the author of the Henri ade. Noverre subsequently abandoned this plan. In Noverre was made director of the ballet at the Paris Opera, where he remained until , Following the success of his ballet les Ca- prices de Galatea, in It was presented as pure pantomime, not dance. Noverre tried it out first for the court, where it was politely received, but unfortunately it achieved a succes d'estime rather than an ap- preciation on its own merits.

Deceived by this reception at the court, No- verre decided upon a presentation at the Opera before a public audience. Here it met with a very different fate. One facetious commentator suggested that Noverre next attempt to put La Rochefoucauld's Maodmes into pantomime. Undaunted by this initial failure, however, Noverre persevered and achieved success with sub- sequent productions, not alone in Paris but also in other parts of Europe when he took his troupe on tour, appearing at Vienna, Wurtemberg end Milan.

Under Noverre the pantomime-ballet reached a high degree of develop- ment. It was due to his revolutionising influence that the original type of the Italian ballet became transformed, the dancing being more and more sub- ordinated to the dramatic elements. In addition to the drastic changes in the treatment of the plot, Noverre was also responsible for important modifi- cations in costume.

His contention was that dress, music and action should be inter-interpretative. This was impossible in the stiff and cumbersome cos tunes of the period of Louis XIV. Some progress had already been made in this direction by the famous dancer Camargo, who between and had accom- plished a methodical stripping process, eliminating the heavy foundation gar- 38 1 Charles HACKS, Le Geste. Noverre completed the revolution and in addition to dispensing with the cumbersome court costumes with their ham- pering paddings and paniers, also did away with the wearing of the convention- al masks, Noverre 1 s theories are exposed in his Lettres gar les arts en general et 8ur la danse en parti culier, published in , and in De la Dense et des Arts imitateurs, in two volumes, published in and dedicated to the Empress Josephine, Upon reading the first, Voltaire wrote to Noverre, "Cost d'un hosnne de genie.

Both of these works of Noverre are highly meritorious and can still be read today with both in- terest and profit. In a moat had been construct- ed at this point on the outskirts of the city as protection against invaders. In a quadruple row of trees was planted between the moat and the city and toward the middle of the succeeding century this pleasantly shaded spot constituted a popular promenade for the proletariat of Paris. As early as Jean-Baptist e Nicolet, a forain actor, established a permanent little theater on the Boulevard du Temple, specialising originally in spectacles musts, pantomimes and ballets.

Before long he became more am- bitious, the main attraction of his theater consisting of farces of the forain type but still including pantomimes as entr'actes. The Foire Saint-Germain was destroyed by fire in and the other famous feirs disintegrated by degrees, their theaters finally extinguished as a result of the interdictions imposed upon them following the absorption of the Qpera-Comique by the Com6die-Itslienne.

The clientele of the f orain theaters now flocked to the Boulevard du Temple and particularly to Nicolet 1 s theater, which acquired a special reputation. Louis XV heard so much about this troupe that he summoned it to perform for him at Choisy in and was so delighted with its performance that he authorised Nicolet to appropriate the title of Theatre des Grands Danseurs du Red.

A little later Nicolet attached to his theater as dramatic author one Robin eau, known professionally as Beaunoir. Beaunoir was the son of a notary at the Chatelet and had begun his career in dignified fashion as abbe and li- brarian to Louis XVI. He was to finish it as secretary to Jerome, king of Westphalia, but in the interim this versatile individual, independently or with the collaboration of his wife, turned out for Nicolet some two hundred pantomimes, comedies, farces and parades, "toutes plus litteraires et plus decentes que ce qui avalt ete jusqu'alors joue sur le Boulevard.

It became the rendes-vous a la mode not only for Parisians of all classes but for the manv foreigners who were flocking to Paris during the pre-revolutionary epoch. When the original building was torn down wit the demolition of the Boulevard du Temple in , this theater moved to the Square des Arts-et-Metiers, where it now stands. Shortly after the Revolu- tion, upon changing hands, it became known for a brief interim as the Theatre d'Qnulation but in it again resumed its previous title and its original specialties in program material, Voila done ce theatre rendu a sa premiere denomina- tion, a son institution primitive.

La Gaite, a la- quell e il semblait jadis consacre, va y rappeler tous les amateurs de la foire, de la pantomime italiexme et des tours de force. Still another theater on the Boulevard which began exclusively with pantomimes in the Italian style, later adding melodramas, vaudevilles and comic operas, was the Theatre des Varietes Amusantes, founded in A separate realm of pantomimic entertainment associated with the Boule vard du Temple was the Cirque Olympique, which opened in Although trained horses, dogs and other animals held a large place, by elaborate pantomimic spectacles comprising enormous casts of characters, reminiscent of our late New York Hippodrome performances, had become exceedingly popular.

With the outbreak of the Revolution the aristocratic clientele disap- peared from the Boulevard du Temple but the populace remained faithful. Many of the little theaters here were converted into political tribunes and meetia places for the different political parties. The Directoire returned the Boulevard du Temple to its former status. Hungry for pleasure and entertainment, and particularly for thrills, all Paris again thronged the little theaters here until, under Napoleon, their liberties were once more temporarily restricted.

The founding of the Theatre des Acrobates by Madame Saqui in brings us to the even of the birth of true French pantomime.

Madame Saqui was the daughter of a former f orain acrobat and had been herself a popular dancer in Nicolet's troupe. She was highly esteemed by Napoleon, who called her his "enragee" and conferred upon her the title of premiere danseuse of France. Profiting by her influence upon those in high places who admired her talents, Madame Saqui secured authorization from Louis XVIII to establish a sails de spectacles on the Boulevard du Temple, this privilege being accorded upon condition that she restrict her entertainments to tight-rope dancing and pantomimes, or harlequinades in the Italian manner.

Meanwhile, in addition to being the special preserve for pantomime, this popular theatrical center had also become the realm of melodrama. Its founder was one Nicolas Michel Ber- trand, who had begun his career modestly as a butter merchant in Vincennes. Stepping up a rung or two in tho social ladder, he became in time a carriage maker. To further augment his means of livelihood, he made a practice of transporting passengers by carriage between vincennes and Paris.

Among his passengers one day was Madame Saqui, owner and star tight-rope dancer of the recently founded Theatre des Acrobates on the Boulevard du Temple. During the course of the journey an argument arose between the two, which soon de- veloped into a noisy quarrel. Madame Saqui insulted the worthy Monsieur Ber- trand, accused him of concocting his butter out of veal fat and called him a highway robber.

Little did the lady dream what consequences her sharp tongue was to evoke. From this moment, Bertrand had but one thought; revenge. The ideal retaliation could only be one which would destroy the professional prestige of his fair enemy and this meant nothing less than the establish- ment of a competitive theater.

It was an ambitious enterprise for the modest carriage maker and re- quired more capital than he had at his own command. Accordingly, he sought out a friend, Monsieur Fabian, an umbrella merchant by trade, who was an ardent devotee of the spectacles of the Boulevard theaters. To him Bertrand confided his scheme. The plot struck Fabian's fancy and he agreed to go into 47 partnership with Bertrand, putting up his share of the necessary funds. Good fortune was in store for Bertrand at the outset, for it so hap- pened that at this opportune moment a location directly next door to Madame Saqui's Theatre des Acrobates became available.

This building had housed the modest but famed establishment of Monsieur Curtius. In striking contrast to the vitality and excess of movement in all the other forms of entertainment on the Boulevard was the immobility of that proffered by Monsieur Curtius, His specialty was waxworks. Into his museum trooped a steady stream of pa- trons curious to view reproductions of all the celebrities and famous crimin- als of the day.

Curtius has been accused, and per- haps with reason, of simply changing the costumes and names on the placards of his political figures with each new regime, so that the same mannekin rep- resented successively Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X. The waxworks museum had prospered and at the very moment when Bertrand conceived his scheme of revenge upon Madame Saqui, Curtius decided to move his establishment to more commodious quarters.

Bertrand took over the prop- erty and in a little over a month had reconstructed it and was ready to open battle. Authorisation for the use of the title was granted but not a bona fide theatrical licence. The little theater began its career with acrobatic entertainments. The neophyte pro- ducers soon took stock of the fact that if they were to wage a battle on equa grounds with Madame Saqui they must fight her with her own weapons.

There- fore, they resolved to add acrobatic pantomimes to their own bill of fare. This was more easily decided upon than put into execution, for the mimes of real ability were all associated with the various already established theater; which specialised in this genre of entertainment. They did succeed, however, in enticing a small group of pantomimists away from other companies and the battle was on in earnest. At this epoch the pantomime sautante was one of the rages on the Boule- vard du Temple, As the title indicates, it was a pantomimic expression in which acrobat ics and dancing predominated.

As an interpretation, it was very largely a conventionalized and artificial expression, each bodily attitude, acrobatic trick and dance figure supposedly signifying some definite mental attitude or idea. The scenario of a pantomime sautante reads much like that of a ballet dance routine, of which the following is a typical example: Arlequin appears and expresses self-pity because of his unrequited love for Colombine by executing three cabrioles. His rival, Leandre, essays in his turn to make a similar impression but is able to achieve only a few ineffectual and wholly unimpressive jumps.

Consequently, the palms, together with the hand of Coiombine, are accorded to Arlequin. The pantomime terminates with a veritable tour de force consisting of a human pyramid of which Pierrot and Leandre form the base, standing on their hands, and supporting Cassandre, who lies face downward across their feet; the happy lovers, Arlequin and Coiombine, form the apex of the pyramid, standing upon Cassandre 's back, enlaced in one another's arms, 1 The original licence secured by Bertrand at the opening of the Fun am- bules restricted him to the production of this type of pantomime and while the acrobatic element did tend to disappear somewhat toward the middle of the century, it was a special characteristic of all of the earlier panto- mimes and continued until after Gaspard Deburau's death.

The Funambules did, however, place greater emphasis upon dramatic plot in conjunction with the acrobatics than was common in similar theaters. The Almanach des Spectacles for gives the following appreciation; Theatre des Funambules: tight and slack-rope dancing, acrobatic feats of all kinds and Pantomime-Harlequin- ade constitute the genre of entertainment. It has been remarked, however, that the pieces presented are of a more substantial nature than those at the Theatre des Acrobates.

Usually, except that they lack dia- logue, they are a sort of melodrama in which ingenu- ous virtue is persecuted by black villainy, which goes to the most extreme lengths to accomplish its dastardly crimes. In addition, there are dances, combats, scenic transformations and conflagrations. The single es- sential difference between these pieces and the legit- imate melodramas, which are considered vastly superior by their authors, is that the lover can take no part in the action, nor proceed in his love affairs, without first having executed a certain number of acrobatic stunts or dance figures.

Theo- phile Gautier has defined and analyzed the traditional characteristic require- ments for the necessary pantomimic types as follows: Cassandre represents the head of the family; Leandre, the insipid fop, stupid but wealthy, who is Cas- sandre 1 s choice as suitor for the hand of his daughter, Colombine; Colombine, the heroine, daughter to Cassandre, and the very flower of youth and beauty; Arlequin, with the face of a monkey and the sinuous body of a serpent, usually wearing a black mask, his costume covered with bizarre, multi-colored patches and glittering spangles, the personification of love, spirit, bodily grace, dar- ing - a combination of all the brilliant qualities and vices; Pierrot, pale, pitted with smallpox, insignifi- cant, clothed in rags, always hungry, always beaten, the slave, the passive and mournful individual who looks on dejectedly and slyly at the fortunes and misfortunes of his masters.

Before the advent of Deburau, Arlequin was the principal comic character, always employed as servant or confidant of his master. Musique de M. Monrat, mise en scene par M. Gongibus aine. Arlequin , his servant, asks the reason for this melancholy. The count replies that his heart is sick for love. To distract the count, Arlequin proposes that he bring a Gypsy to amuse his master but when the Gyp- sy turns out to be old and ugly Count Adolphe flies into a rage. Pretext for acrobatic pyrotechnics.

To calm him, the Gypsy conjures up an appari- tion of a young and lovely peasant maid, beneath whose figure appears the in- scription: "Isabella will be the adored wife of Count Adolphe". The count is warned, however, that before winning the girl in the vision as his bride he will have many difficulties to surmount, Isabelle's father is apprehended while poaching on his lord's pre- serves and is brought before the count, who pardons the culprit. He is recoi pensed for his generous action by a smile from I sab ell e, whom he recognizes joyfully as the girl of his vision.

He forthwith declares his love for her and departs to set in motion preparations for the wedding. It is at this point, naturally enough, that the first of the promised obstacles presents itself, A band of counterfeiters appears upon the scene. These desperadoes kidnap the innocent fiancee for the pleasure of their chief. In the second act Rinaldi, chief of the counterfeiters, appears dis- guised as a hermit, Isabelle, having succeeded in eluding her captors, comes upon the hermit and is deceived by his disguise, She appeals to him for aid and unsuspectingly accompanies him into his cavern, from which there issues immediately a piercing cry of despair.

Count Adolphe, being conveniently in the neighborhood at the moment, hears the cry and precipitates himself onto the scene. He questions the pseudo-hermit but is suspicious of his explana- tions. The count, protected by his disguise, is permitted to enter the counterfeiters 1 stronghold unquestion- ed and succeeds in encouraging surreptitiously the damsel in distress.

He then finds a pretext for leaving the cave long enough to issue orders to his arm men to mine the counterfeiters' hideout. At the moment when the infamous Binaldi has the lovely Isabelle in his fatal clutches and is about to work his will upon her, Count Adolphe re-enters, this time without his disguise. A fierce duel ensues between the hero and the villain, at the height of which a terrific explosion occurs.

The rocks of the cavern fall apart, the false hermit is killed and his troupe cast into irons, as the reunited lovers melt happily into each others 1 arms and the curtain falls. Naive as the plot of le Faux Ermite may seem to us today, it must be conceded that it ably sustains comparison with the plots of the majority of legitimate melodramas of the period, those of Pixerecourt not excepted. Among the pantomimists inveigled away from near-by little theaters by Bertrand was a youth of seventeen years of age who had made his debut at the Varietes-Amusantes under the name of Prosper.

This young mime did a suffic- iently creditable piece of work in a minor role in la Naissance d'Arlequin, ou Arlequin dans un Oeuf. While pursuing his courses at the Conservatory Lemaitre continued to reap glory for himself at the Funambules and contributed in no small degree to the establishment of the first success of the newly-founded theater.

In his memoirs Lemaitre expressed his appreciation of the training received during this apprenticeship at the little Theatre des Funambules. In accordance with the royal decree which restricted the privilege of the Funambules, all those who became members of its company were admitted as actors only upon con- dition that they still remained acrobats. Upon which Pericaud laments - Ainsi Frederick lui-meme, le grand Frederick.

News was brought that they had fallen heirs to a legacy, an "est at 9" situated in France, near Amiens, But Neukolin was a long way from Amiens and a family of this size was expensive to transport, Monsieur Deburau, however, was not without a resourceful imagination and proved equal to the situation. He conceived the idea of converting his family into a troupe of strolling players. In this way they could progress by gradual stages to their destination, traveling on foot and earning their living en route.

The plan was put into execution. The boys were trained in juggling and tumbling and the girls in tight-rope walking and dancing. Poor little Gaspard did not take to the training as did his older brothers and sisters. He was the despair of the family and its disgrace. His movements were awk- ward and clumsy. He was stupid and slow and seemed incapable of learning anything. Abandoning hope of ever making an acrobat of him, the family made the best of the bargain by casting the little fellow as a paillasse, or clown, where heretofore his stumbles and tumbles had been accidental, they now became intentional and poor Gaspard became the butt of the kicks and blows of the clever members of the family.

The troupe did not amass a fortune during the journey across Bavaria to France but they did manage to keep body and soul together, buoyed up by thoughts of the fortune awaiting them at their goal, which served as a guid- ing star of hope. At the end of months of wandering, playing wherever they could assemble a crowd of curious onlookers, sleeping in bams or in the open air in true gypsy tradition, they arrived at last at Amiens. But alas, the legacy upon which they had built such high hopes and journed so far to claim proved to be a heart-sickening disappointment.

The dwelling itself was no more than a hovel, gone to rack and run, past all hope of repair. The plot of ground upon which it stood consisted of less than an acre of sterile soil in which even potatoes refused to grow. Gone was the cherished dream of set- tling down in dignity as landed proprietors. The property was sold as it stood and its price at least provided a square meal for the weary wanderers.

The meal settled for, there still remained sufficient funds to invest in a more or less broken-down nag and a basket cart into which were dumped indis- criminately properties, costumes, paraphernalia and Deburaus and the little troupe of mountebanks resumed their travels in style. Journeying southward to avoid the rigors of winter, they arrived eventu- ally in Constantinople, where they experienced a brief moment of real glory.

Playing to enthusiastic street crowds, their fame reached the ears of the Sul- tan, who commanded them to appear at the royal palace itself. They were led into a great hall which appeared to be completely deserted, except for scat- tered guards and attendants. At one end of the hall was hung a curtain, to- ward which the mountebanks were instructed to direct their entertainment. This was undoubtedly the strangest performance ever given by the troupe.

During the performance, not a soul to be seen, not a sound of encouragement or applause to be heard. Used as they were to the stimulus of the reactions of the crowd, this was certainly the most difficult performance these enter- tainers ever went through. But for little Gas par d was reserved a surprising and wholly unintentional treat. During the execution of the most elaborate acrobatic pyramid, Gaspard, mounted upon the perilous summit, discovered him- self poised above the confines of the concealing curtain and his eyes alone were favored, quite unofficially, with a dazzling, magic glimpse of a scene from the Arabian nights.

The years passed and our troupers found themselves once more in France, this time in the capital city itself. They established themselves in a dingy little court in a popular quarter of Paris, the Cour Saint-Maur, and proceeded to dazzle the population with their prowess.

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They secured a licence authoris- ing them to appear in the popular street carnivals and fairs on festival days and became increasingly popular in their humble way. The two sisters won ad- miration by their grace and agility. The oldest son, Nieumensek, was dubbed "roi des tapis 11 , while the second son, Etienne, was accorded the title of "sauteur fini N , Gaspard alone remained in the shade.

No accolade was be- stowed upon him. He was only a clown. One day in the year a dress rehearsal at the Funambules was held up because one of the employes, a boy charged with looking after the proper- ties, failed to appear on time. Bert rand was a stickler for promptness and when the breathless delinquent finally put in his appearance the manager was ready to read him the riot act in style.

The only excuse the culprit could stammer out was that he had completely lost track of the time, so enthralled had he been watching a troupe of acrobats who surpassed any of those at the Funambules. Bertrand pricked up his ears, "Better than mine? This was sufficient for Bertrand. He inquired at once where these par- agons were to be found and upon receiving the information set out post haste for the Gour Saint-Naur, arriving at the precise moment when the Deburau fam- ily was again commencing its turn.

Properly impressed by the agility, grace and novelty of the perform- ers, Bertrand approached Monsieur Deburau and inquired rather abruptly, "How much do you earn per day? Undaunted by Deburau' s manner, Bertrand explained cordially, "I bring you good fortune. We manage to get along ell right on it. We do not regret having come here.

Paris is the capital of the arts. The people here know how to appreciate artists and we flatter our- selves that we are artists. Deburau shook his head. But since you admit that your receipts do not average more than fifteen it is more than you earn ordinarily, n protested Bert rand. We are subject to no master.

We go where we please and as our fancy dictates. The whole outdoors is our kingdom. Why, only listen, sir; we have just returned from Constantinople, in Turkey, where we performed for the Grand Turk and 'Ifesdames les Turqueresses ses fiancees 1 , in the very harem itself. That's more than any of your tumblers can say. However, I'm a reasonable fellow. Give us a hundred and thirty francs a week, furnish the costumes and the Deburau family is yours.

Monsieur is one of the principal directors in the city and he has an honor- able proposition to make to us. The proprietor of the cafe had the greatest esteem for Deburau, who, upon entering, cried out heartily. Beneath the painting appeared an inscrip- tion, representing, in the words of Pericaud, "another duel, much less chiv- alrous in character but no less celebrated: 'Credit is dead. To kill credit, my children, is to kill civilisation, or at least the soul of civilization, which is trade.

The result of the conference in the Cabinet des Gentilshommes. As the party prepared to break up, the chief of the tribe grasped Bertrand firmly by the hand and congratulated him. You have ac- quired five first-class artists, Monsieur Bertrand. That one there doesn't count. There was not much he could say in defense of him.

He is stupid, per- haps. But he is really an excellent clown. I'll put him in the pantomimes. Bertrand, ex- butt er-mer chan t , made a colossal fortune; his son also made a fortune there, and M. Billion himself threatens to turn into a Rothschild, To whom do they owe these fortunes which they have amassed?

To that white Pierrot Deburau of whom I was speak- ing a moment ago. Do away with Pierrot and the pan- tomime withers away and dies and the Theatre des Fu- nambules would cease to exist. Les Funambules. He had not been trained in acro- batics and submitted to this regulation only because it was prescribed by the government and consequently unavoidable so long as he played in this theater. His engagement with the Cirque Olympique proved to be scarcely less hazardous, however, for in this theater he was required to make his entrance on a horse.

Frederick was even less of a bareback rider than an acrobat and a fall from his horse hastened the termination of this second contract. During his stay, nevertheless, he appeared in a number of outstanding roles in pantomimes and mimodramas and it was here that he was remarked by the great actor Talma, who recognised the youth's potentialities and was instrumental in making it pos- sible for Frederick to take his place in the legitimate theaters of Paris, commencing with the Odeon in With the addition of pantomime to hie program of acrobatic turns, aided in large measure by the growing popularity of Lemaitre, the Funambules had become an opponent for Madame Saqui to reckon with.

With the loss of Lemaitre, Bertrand now found himself at a distinct disadvantage, for many of his patrons transferred their allegiance to his ri- val. Thereupon, Bertrand combed the little theaters of the Boulevard for novelty turns which could be engaged for short periods as a supplement to his resident company. Among the varied specialists who followed one another in rapid succession was one Leclerc, a pantosdmist known professionally as a "physiomane".

He performed alone and his specialty consisted in running the entire range of possibilities in facial expression, depicting in turn joy, grief, supplication, stupefaction, anger, rage and madness. He hypnotised his audience, which responded sympathetically to his pantomime. As Leclerc smiled, chuckled, laughed aloud and then built to a paroxysm of hilarity, his audience followed suit until the result was a pandemonium of mirth.

Then, without warning, there would fall a momentary lull as Leclerc composed his face into a blank mask. He would then run the gamut of depressive emotions, working to a dramatic climax of grief with tears streaming down his cheeks, until his audience could bear no more and here and there voices would cry out - "Enough - no morel" Another of Bertrand 's "fillers -in" during this transitional period was Lecoq, the n in combustible wonder", who accomplished the feat of remaining for approximately sixty seconds in a red-hot fire, withdrawing unharmed.

This was an anxious moment for Bertrand, for the fire hazard was great in these flimsy little theaters. Upon perceiving this, Bertrand began to risk spoken dialogues by members of his regular company. His innovation proved too successful to be of long duration with the lynx-eyed fciadame Saqui next door watching his every move.

This lady lost no time in informing the proper au- thorities that Bertrand was violating the terms of his licence and the Funam- bules was threatened with the immediate revocation of its permit unless it put an end at once to these popular piecettes. Prohibition of the spoken word was extended even to the making of announcements from the stage. Whatever in- formation was to be given to the audience had to be written on placards, as in the forain theaters a century earlier. Once again ruses were resorted to in order to circumvent the restriction and since the regulation applied strictly only to the prohibition of the spoken word on the stage proper, explanations or announcements were frequently given from the wings, off stage.

Before very long, however, toward the end of , Bertrand did obtain the official authorisation to play little vaudevilles or parades, provided they contained no more than three participants, and always on condition that the actors made their entrance on the tightrope.

At all costs, they were obliged to maintain strictly their classification of acrobats rather than actors. Many of the participants found themselves no more fortunate than Le- maitre had been and accidents increased to such an extent that it finally be- came customary for the actor to simply touch the tightrope with one foot upon making his entrance. Seeing that the authorities closed their eyes to this side-stepping of the convention, even this formality was eventually abandon- ed. No longer put to practical use, the tightrope was ultimately elevated and 64 stretched across the stage well above the players' heads.

It was in that Deburau, known on the bills at that time simply as Baptists, played the role of Pierrot for the first time. Hitherto, he had been charged with the playing of very minor personages, usually that of a brigand. As such, he was deplorably unsatisfactory. Instead of striking ter- ror into the souls of his audience, as required by the script, he succeeded only in evoking peals of laughter, which resulted in the ruination of situa- tions intended to be dramatic. Vainly, Baptiste resorted to gigantic wigs, incredibly false beards, and made up ferocious eyebrow effects with burnt cork.

Through this formidable assortment of foliage his thin, elongated, white face with its inimitably expressive eyes, peeped forth and despite ev- ery effort against it on his part, turned shivers of terror into gales of hi- larity. The authors of the pantomimes became excessively annoyed. Baptists' a comrades, who took their roles very seriously, also stormed against this square peg in a round hole and demanded that he no longer be permitted to par- ticipate in serious dramatic pieces.

He continued to be the despair of his family, who tried to shame him by reiterating the old plaint that he disgraced them all. The official Pierrot of the Funambules at this time was Elan chard, a particular favorite with the public. The public got wind of the difficulty and was easily won over to the support of the favorite as he recounted his side of the story over a friendly bottle of rdne in a near-by caf 6.

With the opening of the performance the next evening. The audience was restless and noisy during the first number on the program. It anticipated the an- 65 nouncement of the change in program, for the pantomime originally scheduled, in which Bl an chard was to have appeared, had necessarily been withdrawn. As the second number of the evening commenced, a voice cried out from the audi- ence, "Where's Blan chard?

It was necessary to ring down the curtain and halt the number under way at the time. Frantically, Bertrand and Fabien consulted together. Then the latter stepped out into the auditorium. In a stentorian voice he demanded silence - and got it. When he could have heard a pin drop, Fabien began to speak. Throw the speaker out," bawled the crowd.

And Fabien became forthwith the target for assorted pro- jectiles which began to rain down upon him from all directions. Valiantly Fabien stood his ground. When the outburst showed signs of calming down somewhat he continued. We want Blanchard I We want Blan chard i" "My friends, Mademoiselle Virginie, a veritable little saint, an angel of purity, has barely escaped being seduced by Monsieur Blanchard, who was apprehended by Monsieur Bertrand last evening in the very act of dragging this young lady into a dressing room of this theater.

The crowd now lent its ears attentively as Fabian continued his narration in the best melodramatic tradition, "Which of you, gentlemen, has not a sister, a niece, a daughter? Which of you would hesitate an instant to throw out of your home a scoundrel found guilty of betraying your trust by endeavoring to besmirch the reputa- tion of that sister, that niece or that daughter? In spite of his talent, wa have dispensed with Elan chard 1 s services, without turning him over to the authorities as he so richly merited.

No sub- stitution for Blanchard had been pre-arranged, as the pantomime originally scheduled had been withdrawn. Suddenly, without rhyme or reason, the name of Baptiste flashed into Fabian's mind. Monsieur Baptiste, of the Deburau family, a young artist in whose talent we place the highest hopes.

Meanwhile, general hubbub was rife backstage. On tenterhooks, the troupe had followed Fabian's progress. Upon overhearing his co-manager's amazing announcement which Barked the climax of his speech, Bert rand grabbed Baptiste and hissed at him to get into Pierrot's costume at once. Stunned, Baptist e hesitated and started to stammer - "But, Monsieur Bertrand Mind you remember that and put it over, or else I" As in a nightmare, Gaspard Deburau somehow effected the necessary change in costume and make-up. Up rolled the curtain. Out onto the stage walked Pierrot. He turned his long, thin, white face with its eloquent eyes toward his audience.

As one person, the audience burst spontaneously into a roar of laughter. Deburau, king of Pierrots, was consecrated. With the succeeding piece, Arlequin dogue. There were at this time two families of featured acrobats at the Fu- nambules, the Deburaus and the Charigni family. This latter comprised a fa- ther, two sons and two daughters.

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Mademoiselle Nanette played Colombine and her sister, Mari- on, was used in various soubrette roles. In the acrobatic numbers preceding the pantomime the two families performed their turns in combination and their human pyramids constituted a spectacular feature, Bertrand was not disturbed by the frequent and increasingly severe quarrels arising out of the rivalry between the two families.

On the contrary, he regarded this spirit of compe- tition as a healthy sign, for it spurred on the members of the opposing fac- tions to increased effort and skill. The feud began to take on alarming pro- portions, however, for in proportion as Deburau was given increased import- ance in the pantomimes as Pierrot, the roles of Arlequin and Leandre were rel egated more and more to minor importance and the professional pride of the Charigni brothers was hurt to the quick.

From simple name-calling, vo- cal insults and threats, the rivals progressed to the unethical practice of trying to throw each other off during their acrobatic turns by grappling with each other or shifting balance unexpectedly at inopportune moments.

As was inevitable, things finally reached a climax one evening and the two families broke into open battle. The slapstick action of the pantomime was in itself rich in possibilities for vengeance.