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  2. Petro-Chemical Mutual Aid
  3. Mutual Aid Fund
  4. Mutual Aid | rotterdamems

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Petro-Chemical Mutual Aid

Mortgage Icon Mortgages View Products arrow icon. Whether you just enlisted or retired long ago, your financial security is our vision. As the longest-standing not-for-profit association exclusively serving the US military community, we empower you with the financial confidence to achieve your goals. Watch Testimonial Video. Member Benefits Wide range of services for every stage of your life Learn More. Military Spouse Community Stay Informed. Get Support. Be Inspired. Connect Today. Learning Hub View All Articles arrow icon. Calculate arrow icon. Historically speaking this was definitely the case in many industrializing countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, when mutual insurance associations offered burial and sickness insurance to their predominantly wage-earning members.

Most mutuals were small and homogeneous groups, relying heavily on voluntary participation and social control to keep administrative costs low and to prevent malingering. Notwithstanding their expanding reach in urbanized areas, the continued existence of the mutual was continually threatened by commercial competitors, aging memberships, inadequate management and intervening governments. One way of dealing with these risks consisted in cooperation and affiliation between the local groups. Working together could solve problems of frugality and locality without necessarily having to give up local democracy and sociability, and shared interests could be defended more effectively.

However, the reasons behind affiliation and its institutional outcome could vary widely. Developments of both federations are sketched until the moment the state introduced national health insurance in United Kingdom and Spain. Firstly, the growth of both federations and their geographical expansion are reviewed, offering a description of their respective governance structures.

In the second part we focus more specifically on the risks covered, the sources of financing and the role of social capital in overcoming economic and collective action problems e. Finally, the initiatives of the federations to alleviate these and other recurring problems through cooperation and sanctioning are analyzed e. Through this comparison the paper shows similarities and differences between two federated mutuals originating in regions that experienced industrialization processes with different magnitudes and chronologies, thereby highlighting how the socioeconomic context and the frameworks of cooperation and conflict with the public administrations influenced the capacities and policies of both entities.

Three years after the end of the Civil War, the law on compulsory sickness insurance law Seguro Obligatorio de Enfermedad was approved However, the beginning of the implementation of Social Security was characterized by the insufficiency of public health infrastructures. In this situation the State depended on the collaboration of private entities, Mutual Insurance Systems, and the Church. There was also a modification of the classification of hospitals.

Mutual Aid Fund

The presentation will analyze the contribution of the Mutual Insurance Companies to the Spanish Hospital System in the second half of the twenty century, taking into account the progressive lack of State support for these institutions, since it preferred to exclusively support the public institutions that it supported.

From the late 19th century work-place regulations and social security was gradually imposed by western states to mitigate the social unrest in the work class. The popular civil society movement became a political force and a major organizer of insurance schemes to protect workers from the financial consequences of work-place related illness and sickness. By meeting the growing demand among wage-earning urban households for insurance protection, health insurance societies became a key welfare institution across the western world in the late 19th and early 20th century.

In underwriting work-place sickness, but also accidents, selecting risk and distribute costs actuarially fair turned into major challenges. Workers of different occupations was exposed to different work-place risks — a fact that was well established in public reports, health insurance societies and unions. If equal premiums was imposed, the low-risk workers would subsidize the high risk, while an actuarial fair risksetting would make risk exposed workers to pay more. Our preliminary findings from a Swedish case, shows that an equal premium setting model was selected, motivated by the importance of solidarity among workers.

As later developments in compulsory work place insurance, solidarity argument was not isolated to health insurance societies.

Mutual Aid | rotterdamems

It was a concern for the design on social insurance at large. In this paper we address the solidary argument within the social insurance movement, and examine carefully the developments in one of the nation-wide health insurance societies in Sweden at the turn of the twentieth century.

Contracts and Mutual Aid - How Anarchism Works - Part 2

As a latecomer Sweden was exposed to the broader developments of social and accident insurance developments taking place in Western Europe at the time. We will put our case into this broader context and apply mixed method approach. We will use a qualitative approach to scrutinize the solidary argument in the debate.

In order to examine the impact of solidary policy setting on selection and outcomes of health insurance, we will employ and individual-based data including information on occupation and premiums size among members in one nation-wide health insurance society. Risks, as in danger or peril, have a long history, but risk, as a calculable danger that can be insured against, has a comparatively short one.